Environment-Scale Fabrication: Replicating Outdoor Climbing Experiences


Emily Whiting, Nada Ouf, Liane Makatura, Christos Mousas, Zhenyu Shu & Ladislav Kavan

ACM CHI 2017

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Environment-Scale Fabrication: Replicating Outdoor Climbing Experiences


Emily Whiting, Nada Ouf, Liane Makatura, Christos Mousas, Zhenyu Shu & Ladislav Kavan

ACM CHI 2017

Abstract

Despite rapid advances in 3D printing, fabricating large, durable and robust artifacts is impractical with current technology. We focus on a particularly challenging environment-scale artifact: rock climbing routes. We propose a prototype fabrication method to replicate part of an outdoor climbing route and enable the same sensorimotor experience in an indoor gym. We start with 3D reconstruction of the rock wall using multi-view stereo and use reference videos of a climber in action to identify localized rock features that are necessary for ascent. We create 3D models akin to traditional indoor climbing holds, fabricated using rapid prototyping, molding and casting techniques. This results in robust holds accurately replicating the features and configuration of the original rock route. Validation was performed on two rock climbing sites in New Hampshire and Utah. We verified our results by comparing climbers moves on the indoor replicas and original outdoor routes.

Acknowledgements

Thank you to our dedicated rock climbers: William Braasch, Wayne Norse, and Patrick Xu; the Dartmouth College Thayer Machine Shop for fabrication resources; the anonymous reviewers for their feedback; and our colleagues Kevin Chen, Elaine Cohen, Perttu H¨am¨al¨ainen, Jaakko Lehtinen, and Frieder Wittmann for insightful discussions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Numbers 1464267, 1617172 and 1622360. We also gratefully acknowledge the support of Activision.

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Bibtex

@inproceedings{whiting:chi:2017,
    author= {Emily Whiting and Nada Ouf and Liane Makatura and Christos Mousas and Zhenyu Shu and Ladislav Kavan},
    title = {Environment-Scale Fabrication: Replicating Outdoor Climbing Experiences},
    booktitle = {Proc.\ 2017 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems},
    publisher = {ACM},
    year= {2017},
    pages = {1794--1804},
}

Buoyancy Optimization for Computational Fabrication


Lingfeng Wang & Emily Whiting

Eurographics 2016

Buoyancy Optimization for Computational Fabrication


Lingfeng Wang & Emily Whiting

Eurographics 2016

Abstract

This paper introduces a design and fabrication pipeline for creating floating forms. Our method optimizes for buoyant equilibrium and stability of complex 3D shapes, applying a voxel-carving technique to control the mass distribution. The resulting objects achieve a desired floating pose defined by a user-specified waterline height and orientation. In order to enlarge the feasible design space, we explore novel ways to load the interior of a design using prefabricated components and casting techniques. 3D printing is employed for high-precision fabrication. For larger scale designs we introduce a method for stacking lasercut planar pieces to create 3D objects in a quick and economic manner. We demonstrate fabricated designs of complex shape in a variety of floating poses.

Acknowledgements

We thank Devin Balkcom, Lorie Loeb, and the anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. Kevin Baron and Pete Fontaine of Thayer School Machine Shop provided fabrication assistance. Models provided courtesy of Stanford Computer Graphics Laboratory: bunny, dragon; Thingiverse: whale, seahorse, gorilla, hippo, octopus, toad; Myminifactory: angry bird. This project is partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1464267.

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Bibtex

@article{wang:eg:2016,
    author= {Lingfeng Wang and Emily Whiting},
    title = {Buoyancy Optimization for Computational Fabrication},
    journal = {Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of Eurographics)},
    volume= {35},
    number= {2},
    year= {2016},
    pages = {},
}

Data-Driven Bending Elasticity Design by Shell Thickness


Xiaoting Zhang, Xinyi Le, Zihao Wu, Emily Whiting & Charlie C. L. Wang

Symposium on Geometry Processing 2016

Data-Driven Bending Elasticity Design by Shell Thickness


Xiaoting Zhang, Xinyi Le, Zihao Wu, Emily Whiting & Charlie C. L. Wang

Symposium on Geometry Processing 2016

Abstract

We present a method to design the deformation behavior of 3D printed models by an interactive tool, where the variation of bending elasticity at different regions of a model is realized by a change in shell thickness. Given a soft material to be used in 3D printing, we propose an experimental setup to acquire the bending behavior of this material on tubes with different diameters and thicknesses. The relationship between shell thickness and bending elasticity is stored in an echo state network using the acquired dataset. With the help of the network, an interactive design tool is developed to generate non-uniformly hollowed models to achieve desired bending behaviors. The effectiveness of this method is verified on models fabricated by different 3D printers by studying whether their physical deformation can match the designed target shape.

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Bibtex

@article {zhang:2016,
  author = {Zhang, Xiaoting and Le, Xinyi and Wu, Zihao and Whiting, Emily and Wang, Charlie C.L.},
  title = {Data-Driven Bending Elasticity Design by Shell Thickness},
  journal = {Computer Graphics Forum (Proceedings of Symposium on Geometry Processing)},
  volume = {35},
  number = {5},
  pages = {157--166},
  year = {2016},
}

 

Perceptual models of preference in 3D printing direction


Xiaoting Zhang, Xinyi Le, Athina Panotopoulou, Emily Whiting & Charlie Wang

SIGGRAPH Asia 2015

Perceptual models of preference in 3D printing direction


Xiaoting Zhang, Xinyi Le, Athina Panotopoulou, Emily Whiting & Charlie Wang

SIGGRAPH Asia 2015

Abstract

This paper introduces a perceptual model for determining 3D printing orientations. Additive manufacturing methods involving low-cost 3D printers often require robust branching support structures to prevent material collapse at overhangs. Although the designed shape can successfully be made by adding supports, residual material remains at the contact points after the supports have been removed, resulting in unsightly surface artifacts. Moreover, fine surface details on the fabricated model can easily be damaged while removing supports. To prevent the visual impact of these artifacts, we present a method to find printing directions that avoid placing supports in perceptually significant regions. Our model for preference in 3D printing direction is formulated as a combination of metrics including area of support, visual saliency, preferred viewpoint and smoothness preservation. We develop a training-and-learning methodology to obtain a closed-form solution for our perceptual model and perform a large-scale study. We demonstrate the performance of this perceptual model on both natural and man-made objects.

Acknowledgements

We thank the anonymous reviewers for their comments, and the authors of [Secord et al. 2011] for clarifications. Models provided courtesy of the AIM@SHAPE Shape Repository: Bimda, kitten, dancing children, gargoyle, Max-Planck, armadillo, cow, bunny, octopus, egea, sheep, duck. Remaining models provided by TF3DM and Thingiverse. This material is based upon work partially supported by the HKSAR RGC General Research Fund (GRF) CUHK/14207414, and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1464267.

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Bibtex

@article{zhang:sa:2015,
 author = {Zhang, Xiaoting and Le, Xinyi and Panotopoulou, Athina and Whiting, Emily and Wang, Charlie C. L.},
 title = {Perceptual Models of Preference in 3D Printing Direction},
 journal = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
 volume = {34},
 number = {6},
 year = {2015},
 pages = {215:1--215:12},
 publisher = {ACM},
} 

A 3-D Stability Analysis of Lee Harvey Oswald in the Backyard Photo


Srivamshi Pittala, Emily Whiting & Hany Farid

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law 2015

A 3-D Stability Analysis of Lee Harvey Oswald in the Backyard Photo


Srivamshi Pittala, Emily Whiting & Hany Farid

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law 2015

Abstract

Fifty years have passed since the assassination of U.S. President Kennedy. Despite the long passage of time, it is still argued that the famous backyard photo of Oswald, holding the same type of rifle used to assassinate the President, is a fake. These claims include, among others, that Oswald’s pose in the photo is physically implausible. We describe a detailed 3-D stability analysis to determine if this claim is warranted.

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Bibtex

@article{pittala:2015,
    author= {Srivamshi Pittala and Emily Whiting and Hany Farid},
    title = {A 3-D Stability Analysis of Lee Harvey Oswald in the Backyard Photo},
    journal = {Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law},
    volume= {10},
    number= {3},
    year= {2015},
    pages = {87--98},
}